For more than a decade healthcare practitioners have been discussing the merits of evidence-based medicine. But what is evidence? Most use this term to mean the best available research evidence? And when one wants to know how well a particular diagnostic, therapeutic or preventive intervention works, the preferred type of research is using randomised controlled trails (RCTs). The Canadian task force on preventive health care, which formally introduced the concept of “levels of evidence”, has assigned RCTs the highest level of evidence. Other types of research evidence, for example, controlled observational studies and case series, are considered to be at a lower level, and expert opinion is lowest of all.
This issue of Site News explores the Introduction of Evidence-based Medicine and Ophthalmology, EBO on Cataract, Low Vision, Glaucoma, Amblyopia, Optometry, and Endophthalmitis. Also this issue covered the Evidence strategy and Evidence cases. Also there is a Protocol of EBO and Manual.
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- EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE IN EYE CARE – RELEVANT RESEARCH TO INFORM PRACTICE
Evidence-based medicine aims to help clinicians and practitioners with information on how to care for their patients by making use of the best evidence available. This evidence invariably derived from deliberations at conferences, meetings, or unpublished and published scientific literature. “Hunches” or “gut feelings” or “expert opinions” have had an informal burial with the birth of the more formal evidence­ based medicine, which now influences clinical decision-making and practice.
- BRIDGING THE GAP TO EVIDENCE-BASED EYE CARE
An evidence-based practitioner as one who combines their individual knowledge and expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research.
- WHAT IS EVIDENCE-BASED OPHTHALMOLOGY? INTRODUCING THE COCHRANE EYES AND VISION GROUP
The modern approach is to teach doctors how to ask questions and challenge established values. What is the evidence that one treatment is better than another? How precise is a test inseparating people affected by a condition from those who are not?.
- IS OPHTHALMOLOGY EVIDENCE BASED? A CLINICAL AUDIT OF THE EMERGENCY UNIT OF A REGIONAL EYE HOSPITAL
This study demonstrated that the majority of interventions in the ophthalmic unit were evidence based and comparable to the experience of other specialties.
- ESTABLISHING THE EVIDENCE-BASE FOR THE PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF OCULAR INJURIES
- BEST PRACTICE EYE CARE MODELS
Practical and unique comprehensive eye care services provision models have evolved targeting the underserved populations in different parts of the World. At places the rapid assessment of the burden of eye diseases in confined areas or utilizing the key informants for identification of eye diseases in the communities are promoted for better planning and evidence based advocacy for getting / allocation of resources for eye care.
- COMPENDIUM OF EVIDENCE-BASED EYE CARE
The Compendium of Evidence-Based Eye Care will be a collection of clinical practice guidelines based on clinical evidence and expert consensus to assist the clinician in decision-making about treating specific diseases. The successful implementation of such clinical guidelines should improve quality of care by decreasing in appropriate variation and by expediting the application of effective advances into everyday practice.
- EVIDENCE-BASE FOR LOW VISION REHABILITATION
This is of course a complex problem since rehabilitation covers many different aspects of activity; mobility is one (use of cane or guide dog) and reading aids another. Other aspects include help in the home with daily tasks and social rehabilitation; ensuring particularly elderly visually impaired people do not become isolated.
- EVIDENCE FOR THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVENTIONS FOR CONGENITAL, INFANTILE AND CHILDHOOD CATARACT
Cataract in children is an important cause of childhood blindness and treatment can make a difference if it can be delivered effectively and in time. But there are many questions about how this is best achieved clinical questions which need good evidence for an answer. And before addressing these, there are others about how best to detect cataracts in babies (there are no randomized trials as yet) and whether or not there is any potential for prevention.
- SEARCHING FOR EVIDENCE-BASED INFORMATION IN EYE CARE
Reliable websites and initiatives, which appraise and disseminate up-to-dateinformation to produce the best available evidence, are extremely valuabe.
- EVIDENCE-BASED APPROACH TO GLAUCOMA MANAGEMENT
Evidence-based medicine is an evolving new paradigm. With the advent of numerous new diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions, one needs to critically evaluate and validate them by appropriate methods before adopting them into day-to-day patient care. The concepts involved in the evaluation of diagnostic tests and therapy are discussed. For delivering the highest level of clinical care, evidence alone is not sufficient. Integrating individual clinical experience and patients perspectives with the best available external evidence is essential.
- EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE IN OPTOMETRY
Essentially, evidence-based practice can be thought of as a process in which clinical decisions are made in light of the best research evidence, existing practitioner expertise and knowledge and the patient’s preferences within the context of the clinic environment.
- A GUIDE TO COMPLETING THE EVIDENCE BASE FOR A LOCAL VISION STRATEGY
This guide is one of the resources developed by Thomas Pocklington Trust to support local vision strategies. It accompanies the template for an evidence base for a local vision strategy and suggests where to find the evidence that underpins a local vision strategy.
- EVIDENCE BASE TO SUPPORT THE UK VISION STRATEGY
The UK Vision Strategy launch will mark an important new initiative, which should draw support and active co-operation from all involved in eye care. In line with Vision 2020 – a global initiative, coordinated jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB) – the UK Vision Strategy aims to promote the elimination of avoidable sight loss, and improvement in the care, quality of life and opportunities of individuals and families affected by sight problems.
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- April & May 2013 2013 -Cataract Surgical Monitoring
- May & June 2014 2014 -Ocular Anaesthesia
- July & August 2014 2014 -Evidence-based Ophthalmology
- March 2013 2013 -Sterilization
- January & February 2014 2014 -Optical Dispensing
- January & February 2013 2013 -Instruments and Maintenance
- March & April 2014 2014 -Ocular Prosthesis
- May & June 2012 2012 -Research in Eye Care
- November & December 2012 2012 -IT Applications in Eye Care
- August 2012 2012 -Primary Eye Care
- July 2012 2012 -Refractive Error
- Jan & Feb 2012 - Human Resoure in Eye Care
- Oct 2011-SUSTAINABILITY IN EYE CARE
- Sep 2011-REACHING THE UNREACHED EYE CARE SERVICES
- Feb 2011-HEALTH INSURANCE
- Jan 2011-PATIENT SAFETY
- Oct 2010-COMMUNITY OPHTHALMOLOGY
- Aug 2010-DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
- Jul 2010-GLAUCOMA SCREENING
- Jun 2010-TYPES OF CATARACT
- May 2010-STRABISMUS
- Apr 2010-EYECARE FOR BABIES
- Mar 2010-CONGENITAL CATARACT
- Feb 2010-EYE CARE STATUS – WHO REGIONS
- Jan 2010-EYE CARE STATUS – WHO REGIONS
- Dec 2009-ENHANCING COMPLIANCE TO TREATMENT
- Nov 2009-DIABETES AND EYE
- Oct 2009-COST OF EYE CARE
- Sep 2009-GENDER and EYE HEALTH
- Aug 2009-Vision Rehabilitation
- Jul 2009-Patient Empowerment
- Jun 2009-Service Marketing
- May 2009-Medical Tourism
- Apr 2009-Pharmacy Management
- Mar 2009-Hospital accreditation
- Feb 2009-Hospital accreditation
- Jan 2009-Monitoring In Eye Care
- Dec 2008-Monitoring In Eye Care
- Nov 2008-Inpatient Management In Eye Care
- Oct 2008-Advocacy in Eye Care
- Sep 2008-Macular Degeneration
- Aug 2008-Amblyopia
- Jul 2008-Computer Vision Syndrome
- Jun 2008-Creating Awareness about Eye Care
- May 2008-Resource Utilization
- Apr 2008-Eye Care Barriers
- Mar 2008-Global Eye Care Programme
- Feb 2008-Standardization through Clinical Protocols
- Jan 2008-Materials Management in Hospitals
- Dec 2007-Glaucoma Management
- Nov 2007-Outpatient Management
- Oct 2007-Demand Generation
- Sep 2007-Trachoma
- Aug 2007-Eye Banking
- Jul 2007-Diabetic Retinopathy
- Jun 2007-Paediatric Eye Care Services
- May 2007-Managing People
- Apr 2007-Ophthalmic Emergencies in Eye Care
- Mar 2007-Eye Care Information Resource Center
- Feb 2007-Patient Education Resources
- Jan 2007-Financial Planning for Eye Hospital
- Dec 2006-Patient Satisfaction
- Nov 2006-MLOP for Effective Delivery of Eye Care
- Oct 2006-Low Vision & Refractive Error
- Sep 2006-Tele Ophthalmology
- Aug 2006-Medical Records in Hospitals
- Jul 2006-Housekeeping in Hospitals
- Jun 2006-Quality Assurance in Eye Care
- May 2006-Refractive Correction
- Apr 2006-Evidence for Action - Cataract Control
- Mar 2006-Leadership
- Feb 2006-Community Outreach - Cataract
- Jan 2006-Counselling
- Dec 2005-Vision Centre
- Nov 2005-Human Resources in Eye Care
- Oct 2005-Ophthalmic Equipment and Instruments
- Sep 2005-IEC
- Aug 2005-Start up eye Hospital
- Jul 2005-Refractive Error
- Jun 2005-Low Vision
- May 2005-Cataract
- Apr 2005-Paediatric Eye Care Service Delivery
- Mar 2005-Strategic Planning Tools
- Feb 2005-Frequently Asked Questions on Eye Glasses!
- Jan 2005-Refractive Error Service Resources
- Dec 2004-Highlighting Starting a New Eye Hospital Tool
- Nov 2004-Diabetic Retinopathy Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Study
- Oct 2004-Strategy worksheet for continually improving quality of services and checklist
- Sep 2004-Quality Cataract Series - Paramedical Contributions Module
- Aug 2004-Sterilization Protocol
- Jul 2004-Medical Records Protocol
- Jun 2004-Magnitude of Cataract Blindness Estimation Tool
- May 2004-Cataract Frequently Asked Questions
- Apr 2004-Introduction to SiteNews