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Dear Readers,
Ocular Prosthesis is an artificial eye, fitted to patients whose eye has been removed and for those with blind contracted (pthysical) eye. During enucleation (the surgical process of removing the eye), a ball implant is inserted into the eye socket, to fill the area the eye once occupied. An ocular prosthesis is then moulded to fit in front of the implant. It occupies the space between the eyelids and the skin (conjunctiva) covering the implant. This issue of Site News explores the Introduction and History of Prosthesis, Care, Types, and Case Reports of Prosthesis. It also brings to you Prosthesis Rehabilitation, Replacement, Management, Color stability, Custom Ocular Prosthesis and Research & Materials.

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Library Team
The Issue Features...
Ocular Prosthesis
Vol.11 No.2 March & April 2014
•  Introduction
•  Ocular Prosthesis
•  History of prosthesis
•  Care of ocular prosthesis
•  Types of Ocular Prosthesis
•  Ocular Prosthesis and Case Reports
•  Prosthetic Replacement
•  Management of Prosthesis
•  Color Stability
•  Custom Ocular Prosthesis
•  Research & Materials

•   Past Issues


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  • An ocular prosthesis or artificial eye is a type of craniofacial prosthesis that replaces an absent natural eye following an enucleation, evisceration, or orbital exenteration. The prosthesis fits over an orbital implant and under the eyelids. Often referred to as a glass eye, the ocular prosthesis roughly takes the shape of a convex shell and is made of medical grade plastic acrylic. A few ocular prostheses today are made of cryolite glass. A variant of the ocular prosthesis is a very thin hard shell known as a scleral shell which can be worn over a damaged or eviscerated eye. Makers of ocular prosthetics are known as ocularists. An ocular prosthesis does not provide vision; this would be a visual prosthesis. Someone with an ocular prosthesis is totally blind on the affected side and has monocular (one sided) vision.

  • FABRICATION OF CUSTOM OCULAR PROSTHESIS USING A GRAPH GRID

  • The present article is an illustration of a case report of a lady chosen for a custom ocular prosthesis. The method described here uses a transparent grid template from which the iris is traced. An attempt is also made to mimick the shade and colour of the sclera in the wax pattern itself, using white paraffin wax. This gives an accurate registration of the position and alignment of iris disc assembly, giving a natural look.



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  • THE ART OF OCULAR PROSTHETICS

  • The ocular prosthetics clinic at Moorfields Eye Hospital is the largest in-house facility of its type in the UK and it is expanding further, revealed chief ocularist David Carpenter when speaking to OTabout the department and its work.The ocular prosthetics clinic at Moorfields Eye Hospital is the largest in-house facility of its type in the UK and it is expanding further, revealed chief ocularist David Carpenter when speaking to OTabout the department and its work.

  • OCULAR PROSTHESIS

  • This article describes the various aspects of ocular prosthesis including fabrication, fitting and aspects of ocular prosthesis including fabrication, fitting and maintenance.

  • ORBITAL IMPLANTS AND OCULAR PROSTHESES: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

  • The loss of an eye can be a very traumatic event in a person’s life, not only medically, but also emotionally. F or many, the face and eyes help represent who they are, and it is common for these patients to feel as if a part of them has been lost. It is the responsibility of ophthalmologists and eye care providers, as they journey with patients through the process of eye removal and artificial eye placement, to provide the best possible functional and cosmetic results.



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  • A BRIEF HISTORY OF OCULAR PROSTHESES

  • The art of making artificial eyes has been practiced since ancient times. Egyptian priests made the first ocular prostheses, called Ectblepharons, as early as the fifth century BC. In those days, artificial eyes were made of enameled metal or painted clay and attached to cloth and worn outside the socket.

  • THE HISTORY OF ARTIFICIAL EYES

  • The first evidence of human’s wearing an artificial eye was recently uncovered in the southeastern part of Iran. The woman, carbon-dated back to 2900 BCE, was discovered wearing a rudimentary ocular prosthesis worn outside of the eye socket. This crude, hemispherical form was made of clay and covered with a thin layer of gold. Tiny holes were also drilled into both sides of the eye, through which gold thread passed to hold the eyeball in place.

  • A BRIEF HISTORY OF OCULAR PROSTHESIS

  • Artificial eye-making has been practiced since ancient times. The first ocular prostheses were made by Roman and Egyptian priests as early as the fifth century BC. In those days artificial eyes were made of painted clay attached to cloth and worn outside the socket.



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  • OCULAR PROSTHETICS

  • This article focuses history and types of ocular prosthetics.

  • EVALUATION OF OCULAR PROSTHESIS

  • It has been commonly observed that ocular prosthesis generally fitted do not conform to. In the present communication we have tried to evaluate the various types of ocular prosthesis fitted by us.



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  • MANAGEMENT OF AN EYE PROSTHESIS OR CONFORMER


  • HOW TO HANDLE YOUR ARTIFICIAL EYES

  • If you recently got fake eyes, one of your major questions on your mind is how to take care of your artificial eyes and the best way to handle and clean them. The good news is that ocular prosthetics can easily be removed and replaced with some practice. They are held in place by the lower and upper eyelids and fit to the interior of the eye socket. Most patients wear their prosthesis full time, removing only occasionally to clean, while other patients remove their prosthesis at night. Wearing full time is ideal.



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  • EVALUATION OF IRIS COLOR STABILITY IN OCULAR PROSTHESIS

  • This study evaluated the stability of acrylic paints used for replicating iris color in ocular prostheses by the analysis of two factors: the temperature of the acrylic resin polymerization cycle during prosthesis fabrication and the incidence of sun light, which is the main photodegrading agent undermining the longevity of ocular prostheses. An accelerated aging assay was used for both analyses.

  • COLOR ALTERATION OF THE PAINT USED FOR IRIS PAINTING IN OCULAR PROSTHESES

  • The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paintanalyzed, in a total of 40 specimens.

  • INFLUENCE OF ARTIFICIAL ACCELERATED AGEING ON THE COLOUR STABILITY OF PAINTS USED FOR OCULAR PROSTHESIS IRIS PAINTING

  • To evaluate the colour stability of paints used for ocular prosthesis iris painting submitted for accelerated artificial ageing (AAA).

  • DIGITAL IMAGING IN THE FABRICATION OF OCULAR PROSTHESES

  • Several ocular and orbital disorders require surgical intervention that may result in ocular defects. Theassociated psychological effect of these defects on the patient requires immediate management and rehabilitation intervention by a team of specialists. The role of the maxillofacial prosthodontist in fabricatingan ocular prosthesis with acceptable esthetics to restore facial symmetry and normal appearance for theanophthalmic patient becomes essential. This article presents a technique for fabricating ocular prosthesesusing the advantages of digital photography.

  • IMPRESSIONS TECHNIQUES FOR OCULAR PROSTHESIS - A CLINICAL REVIEW

  • Ocular prosthesis modification, and the wax Scleral blank technique. The aim of the article is to review the literature on different Clinical impressions techniques used for the fabrication of an ocular prosthesis.



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  • REPRODUCTION OF CUSTOM MADE EYE PROSTHESIS


  • ASSISTANCE IN DEVELOPING A CUSTOM-MADE PROSTHETIC EYE SERVICE

  • A small percentage of patients will not tolerate the fitting of a scleral shell prosthesis, due to underlying symptoms causing the phthisical eye to be sensitive and painful. However, this sensitivity can be caused from mechanicalentropion, the eyelids being unsupported by the reduction of eye volume and the eyelashes rotating inwards.

  • A TIME SAVING METHOD TO FABRICATE A CUSTOM OCULAR PROSTHESIS

  • In this article somealternate procedures have been presented to save time whilefabrication of a custom ocular prosthesis. Digital photographywas used to replicate the iris of the patient, replacing theconventional oil paint technique. Advantages, such as reducedtreatment time and increased simplicity make this method analternative for fabricating ocular prostheses.



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  • FACTORS AFFECTING ARTIFICIAL EYE WEAR

  • Keith Pine commenced his MSc programme with the Department of Optometry and Vision Science in March 2009 and has conducted two pieces of experimental work with private patients under University of Auckland Human Participants Ethics Committee approval. The first experiment was a survey of patients to identify concerns that artificial eye wearers had. The results of this first part of the project (paper submitted to the journal “Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology” on 31st March 2010) identified that the health of their remaining eye was the major concern. The second most important concern was the watering, crusting and discharge associated with wearing their prosthesis. In the second experiment age, hand washing, removal and cleaning regimes, shape and weight of the prosthesis and deposit formation were investigated having the potential to affect artificial eye wear. The results from this experiment are currently being analysed. http://www.artificialeyes.

  • MATERIAL FOR OCULAR PROSTHETICS

  • An optical prosthetic device made from a material based on silicone compounds is a cured composition resulting from vulcanization of a mixture of a,bis-trivinylsiloxyoligodimethyl(methylphenyl)-siloxane and bis-trimethyl(dimethylhydro)siloxyoligomethyl(phenyl)methylhydro-siloxane in the presence of a polyaddition reaction catalyst based on the compounds of metals of the platinum group, the ratio of the first mixture component to the second one ranging within 100:1 and 100:20 parts by mass.

  • OCULAR PROSTHETIC CENTRE


  • INTERNATIONAL PROSTHETIC EYE CENTER




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